We characterized the relationship between the genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia from weakly acidic soils in Japan and their geographical distribution in an ecological study of indigenous soybean rhizobia. We isolated bradyrhizobia from three kinds of Rj-genotype soybeans. Their genetic diversity and community structure were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S–23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region with 11 Bradyrhizobium USDA strains as references. We used data from the present study and previous studies to carry out mathematical ecological analyses, multidimensional scaling analysis with the Bray-Curtis index, polar ordination analysis, and multiple regression analyses to characterize the relationship between soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobial community structures and their geographical distribution. The mathematical ecological approaches used in this study demonstrated the presence of ecological niches and suggested the geographical distribution of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia to be a function of latitude and the related climate, with clusters in the order Bj123, Bj110, Bj6, and Be76 from north to south in Japan.